Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people's arrival with the Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, in which the Romanians took the Roma as slaves from the Mongols and preserved their status to use their labor. Other historians believe that the Romani were enslaved while captured during the battles with the Tatars. The practice of enslaving war prisoners may also have been adopted from the Mongols. Some Romani may have been slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, but most of them migrated from south of the Danube at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia.
By then, the institution of slavery was already established in Moldavia and possibly in both principalities. After the Roma migrated into the area, slavery became a widespread practice by the majority population. The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population. Some branches of the Romani people reached Western Europe in the 15th century, fleeing as refugees from the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.
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In Western Europe, such suspicions and discrimination against a people who were a visible minority resulted in persecution, often violent, with efforts to achieve ethnic cleansing until the modern era. In times of social tension, the Romani suffered as scapegoats; for instance, they were accused of bringing the plague during times of epidemics. The Spanish Crown ordered a nationwide raid that led to the break-up of families as all able-bodied men were interned into forced labor camps in an attempt at ethnic cleansing.
The measure was eventually reversed and the Gypsies were freed as protests began to arise in different communities, sedentary gypsies being highly esteemed and protected in rural Spain. Later in the 19th century, Romani immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English-speaking world. Argentina in prohibited immigration by Roma, as did the United States in In the Habsburg Monarchy under Maria Theresa — , a series of decrees tried to force the Romanies to permanently settle , removed rights to horse and wagon ownership , renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Romani boys into military service if they had no trade , forced them to register with the local authorities , and prohibited marriage between Romanies Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the use of the Romani language , punishable by flogging.
In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanos were under way as early as , when Gitanos were forcibly settled, the use of the Romani language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages. King Charles III took on a more progressive attitude to Gitano assimilation, proclaiming their equal rights as Spanish citizens and ending official denigration based on their race. While he prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language , Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades, he also forbade any form of discrimination against them or barring them from the guilds.
The use of the word gitano was also forbidden to further assimilation, substituted for "New Castilian", which was also applied to former Jews and Muslims. One author ascribes its failure to the overall rejection by the wider population of the integration of the Gitanos. Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway , where a law was passed in permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions. In , the Nuremberg laws stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps.
The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania and Hungary. Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Romanis, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims. Most estimates for numbers of Romani victims of the Holocaust fall between , and ,, although figures ranging between 90, and 1.
Lower estimates do not include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed study by Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the U. Holocaust Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of ,, possibly closer to , In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was so thorough that the Bohemian Romani language became extinct.
In Europe, Romani people are associated with poverty, and are accused of high rates of crime and behaviours that are perceived by the rest of the population as being antisocial or inappropriate.
The Romanis of Kosovo have been severely persecuted by ethnic Albanians since the end of the Kosovo War , and the region's Romani community is, for the most part, annihilated. Czechoslovakia carried out a policy of sterilization of Romani women, starting in In , following the brutal rape and subsequent murder of an Italian woman in Rome at the hands of a young man from a local Romani encampment,  the Italian government declared that Italy's Romani population represented a national security risk and that swift action was required to address the emergenza nomadi nomad emergency.
The deaths of Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic , two Roma children who drowned while Italian beach-goers remained unperturbed, brought international attention to the relationship between Italians and the Roma people. Reviewing the situation in , one Belgian magazine observed:.
On International Roma Day, which falls on 8 April, the significant proportion of Europe's 12 million Roma who live in deplorable conditions will not have much to celebrate. And poverty is not the only worry for the community. Ethnic tensions are on the rise. In , Roma camps came under attack in Italy, intimidation by racist parliamentarians is the norm in Hungary. The consequences of the transition to capitalism have been disastrous for the Roma.
Under communism they had jobs, free housing and schooling. Now many are unemployed, many are losing their homes and racism is increasingly rewarded with impunity. In the summer of French authorities demolished at least 51 illegal Roma camps and began the process of repatriating their residents to their countries of origin. In retaliation a group of Roma, armed with hatchets and iron bars, attacked the police station of Saint-Aignan, toppled traffic lights and road signs and burned three cars.
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A leaked file dated 5 August, sent from the Interior Ministry to regional police chiefs included the instruction: "Three hundred camps or illegal settlements must be cleared within three months, Roma camps are a priority. Many depictions of Romani people in literature and art present romanticized narratives of mystical powers of fortune telling or irascible or passionate temper paired with an indomitable love of freedom and a habit of criminality.
Romani were a popular subject in Venetian painting from the time of Giorgione at the start of the 16th century; the inclusion of such a figure adds an exotic oriental flavour to scenes. A Venetian Renaissance painting by Paris Bordone ca. The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the Soviet Union , a classic example being the Tabor ukhodit v Nebo. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 25 June Not to be confused with Romanians , an unrelated ethnic group and nation, nor with modern or ancient Romans , also unrelated. For other uses, see Romani disambiguation.
For other uses, see Gypsy disambiguation.
Romani flag created in and accepted by the World Romani Congress. Main article: Names of the Romani people. Main article: Romani populations. Main article: Romani diaspora. Main article: Origin of the Romani people. Main article: History of the Romani people. Main article: Porajmos. Main article: Romani society and culture. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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Main articles: Romanipen and Gadjo non-Romani. Main article: Romani music. Main article: Romani contemporary art. Main article: Romani language. Main article: Anti-Romanyism. Main article: Expulsion of Romani people from France.
Gypsy, Roma and Traveller communities
Main article: Romani people in fiction. Some 1,, 6. There was not any option for a person to declare multiple ethnicities. There was an option to declare multiple ethnicities, so this figure includes Romani of multiple backgrounds.
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According to the microcensus Some , 5. Some , 7. There was an additional 3, Balkan Egyptians. Paul, ed.
Retrieved 15 September Ian Hancock 's estimate for 'all Gypsies in the world' was 6 to 11 million. BBC News. Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 27 July Keep a Low Profile". Retrieved 3 October Today, estimates put the number of Roma in the U. Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 22 January European Commission — European Commission.
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